Aerobic fitness

A measure of how well your blood transports oxygen around the body, and how well your muscles utilize the oxygen.

Aerobic metabolism

The metabolic process that occurs in the cells, by which the body uses oxygen to produce energy.

Aerobic

Meaning with oxygen. Aerobic training is at a lower intensity, with the purpose of stimulating aerobic metabolism to improve.

Aerobic endurance (Cardiorespiratory endurance)

A term for someone’s aerobic fitness capacity – their ability to do prolonged exercise without fatigue.

Anaerobic

Anaerobic processes occur in the cells of the body without the presence of oxygen. Anaerobic training is of high intensity and short duration, with the aim of improving the efficiency of the body’s anaerobic energy-producing systems.

Anaerobic threshold

The physiological point during exercise at which lactic acid starts to accumulate in the muscles. It occurs around the point of the exercise intensity increasing such that anaerobic processes are becoming more dominant.

Beats per Minute (bpm)

The units of heart rate, beats per minute

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

The lowest rate of body metabolism (rate of energy use) that can sustain life, measured after a full night’s sleep in a laboratory under optimal conditions of quiet, rest and relaxation.

Body composition

Body composition refers to the components of the body. It is usually divided into two components: the amount of fat mass (weight) and the amount of fat-free mass (muscle, bone, skin and organs) in the body.

Cardiorespiratory

Concerning the heart and respiratory system.

Cardiovascular

Concerning the heart and blood vessels.

Endurance

The body’s ability to exercise with minimal fatigue. Often used with other terms such as; endurance training, muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory endurance.

Fartlek training (speed play)

Training in which the pace is varied from a fast sprint to slow jogging.

Fat-free mass

The combined mass of the body of everything that is not fat (e.g. muscle, bone, skin and organs) .

Frequency

How often you work out, such as the number of days lifted per week.

Glycogen

The form in which carbohydrates are stored in the body. Primary sites for storage are the muscles and the liver.

Heart rate

A measurement of the work done by the heart, commonly expressed as the number of beats per minute (bpm).

H.I.I.T.

A training session that involves repeated bouts of anaerobic exercise, separated by aerobic intervals.

Interval training

A training session that involves repeated bouts of exercise, separated by rest intervals. Depending of the length of exercise and rest periods, it may be anaerobic or aerobic training.

Isotonic

Literally means equal tension.

Lactate

A salt formed from lactic acid. See also lactic acid.

Lactate threshold

The point during increasingly intensive exercise at which blood lactate begins to accumulate above resting levels.

Lactic acid

Anaerobic exercise produces lactic acid, which quickly forms lactate in the muscles. because of this, the terms “lactate” and “lactic acid” are often used interchangeably.

Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)

The maximum capacity for oxygen consumption by the body during maximum exercise. Also known as aerobic power or maximal oxygen intake/consumption. VO2max is commonly used as a measure of aerobic fitness.

Maximum heart rate

The highest number of heart beats per minute (bpm) when exercising maximally.

Oxygen Consumption

Oxygen consumption (VO2) may be defined as one’s ability to extract oxygen from the atmosphere via the respiratory system and transport it in the blood to the working tissues (eg. muscles) for energy production by the oxidation of carbohydrate and fat. The highest rate at which you can uptake oxygen is termed the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Research has shown VO2max to be one of the most important determinants of aerobic or endurance performance.

Repetitions or Reps

The number of times a lift or effort is made continuously, one after another and without any rest.

Resistance training

Training designed to increase the body’s strength, power, and muscular endurance through resistance exercise. The most common form of which is weight training.

Resting heart rate

The number of heart beats in one minute (bpm) when a person is at complete rest. A person’s resting heart rate decreases as they become more fit.

Resting metabolic rate (RMR)

The body’s metabolic rate (rate of energy use) early in the morning after an overnight fast and a full eight hours’ sleep. This is different than Basal metabolic rate.

Sets

A set is a group of repetitions. A workout usually includes several sets of each exercise.

Spotting

A person, normally your workout partner, who watches your lifts for technique and safety. Their role is also to help you finish your movement.

Tapering

A reduction in training intensity before a major competition to give the body time to recover and adapt so as to reach a peak in performance.

VO2

Oxygen consumption/uptake by the body. Usually expressed in ml.kg-1.min-1, sometimes in l.min-1.

VO2max

See maximal oxygen uptake